Ensayo sobre los cuentos de Juan Rulfo

Trabajo práctico para presentar el 17/11 (fecha límite 18/11):

Escribir un ensayo argumentativo en el cual se justifique la relación de los cuentos de El llano en llamas, de Juan Rulfo, con la narrativa característica de los autores del boom latinoamericano.

  • Presentar al menos 3 argumentos.
  • Utilizar citas pertinentes.
  • Analizar ambos cuentos leídos en clase.

PRESENTACIÓN: en el blog, en una entrada independiente con título “Ensayo sobre los cuentos de Juan Rulfo”

IMPORTANTE: no confundir boom latinoamericano con realismo mágico.

Antes de empezar con la tarea, los alumnos deben responderse las siguientes preguntas (no es necesario escribir las respuestas):

  1. ¿Qué es el boom y qué es el realismo mágico? En una palabra. Boom: fenómeno literario, realismo mágico: género literario.
  2. ¿Siempre coinciden? Si
  3. Situaciones tales como la pobreza, las guerras, las dictaduras, un clima inhóspito ¿son características de la región latinoamericana? ¿son características del realismo mágico o se relacionan con él de alguna otra manera? ¿son características del boom? Son características de latinoamérica, que se relacionan con el realismo mágico.
  4. La naturaleza como una fuerza misteriosa y mágica… ¿es una característica de Latinoamérica? No, es una característica del realismo mágico.

 

ENSAYO

El boom latinoamericano fue un fenómeno literario cuyo origen se dio a fines del siglo xx. El realismo mágico formó parte de este y se vio más presente en los años sesenta del siglo xx. El grupo de artistas que participan de este fenómeno se propuso como objetivo mostrar América Latina el mundo. En este ensayo voy a comparar dos cuentos del libro “El Llano en llamas” de Juan Rulfo, los textos son “Nos han dado la tierra” y también “La noche que lo dejaron sólo”.

Para empezar me gustaría comparar la presencia de la naturaleza en ambos textos. En el cuento “La noche que lo dejaron sólo” Rulfo describe las sierras, como al clima variaba dependiendo de si uno se encontraba en la base de la misma, o en la cima. “Esta debía de ser la sierra de que le habían hablado. Allá abajo al tiempo tibio, y ahora acá arriba este frío que se le metía por debajo del gabán”. En esta cita vemos como Rulfo describe con un narrador en tercera persona, los cambios que ocurrían en la sierra, durante la noche y al dia, y en la cima y la base de la misma.

Sin embargo si miramos el cuento “Nos han dado la tierra” vemos que Rulfo describe una naturaleza más hospita, muy calurosa. En este texto describe un llano. En el texto dice “Uno platica aquí y las palabras se le calientan en la boca con el calor de afuera, y se le resecan a uno en la lengua hasta que acaban con el resuello.” Podemos ver como Rulfo describe muy bien las altas temperaturas a las cuales los protagonistas del cuento se encontraban y también muestra cómo es realmente el llano para uno cuando quiere hablar. Estas gráficas descripciones de la naturaleza, muestran la variedad de clima que hay en Latinoamérica. Este es uno de los efectos del boom, y uno de sus objetivos también, mostrarle al resto del mundo como es realmente américa latina para las personas que viven en él y las variedades de clima que tenemos.

Por otro lado tenemos la política presente en ambos textos. En el primero del cual hable “La noche que lo dejaron sólo” Rulfo muestra parte de una guerra mexicana en la cual dos bandos pelean y los tíos de nuestro protagonista son tomados en contra de su voluntad, mientras lo siguen buscando a el. “Tiene que venir. Todos están arrendando para la Sierra de Comanja a juntarse con los cristeros del Catorce. Estos son ya de los últimos. Lo bueno seria dejarlos pasar para que les dieran guerra a los compañeros de Los Altos” En esta cita podemos ver dos cosas, la primera como el bando opuesto a nuestro protagonista lo está esperando para matarlo también, y que el bando del mismo estaba marchando para pelear con otra de sus campañas militares.

En cuento lo político en el texto “Nos han dado la tierra” nuestros protagonistas sufren de la corrupción del gobierno ya que son removidos de sus tierras, y enviados a una que no les favorece en lo absoluto para generar cultivo o vivir siquiera. “…el llano no lo queríamos. Queríamos lo que estaba junto al río… El delegado no venía a conversar con nosotros… nos dijo: – no se vayan a asustar por tener tanto terreno para ustedes solos.” Podemos ver cómo el gobierno se imponía sobre sus ciudadanos como lo hace en una dictadura. No se ocupaban de que todos estuvieran en buenas condiciones y pudieran generar una buena vida para sí mismos, dividían las tierras como les parecía, sin importar la opinión del campesino, o si la tierra que estaban regalando estaba apta para vivir.

Para resumir, el boom latinoamericano pudo mostrarle al mundo cómo era realmente latinoamérica. Como era su espléndida y peligrosa naturaleza. Cómo vivía la gente, perseguida por bandos y en países llenos de guerrillas, o bajo el mandato de gobiernos corruptos y dictadores. En su libro “El llano en llamas” Juan Rulfo logra convenir a sus lectores lo que era en el siglo xx la verdadera américa latina.

British influence in Argentina and the railway

For this week’s virtual period in History we have to do some research on the creation and develop of the railways in Argentina and how Britain influenced on it and how.

During the National Organization period, Argentina began to outline a foreign policy favouring relations with Britain, which became the main buyer of Argentine raw materials and the major source of investment in the country.

Britain had always been interested in Spanish America in general and Argentina in particular and signed various treaties in the 1850s, which laid the groundwork for massive investment in transport, communications and navigation.

The Western Rail Company was formed in 1855 with mainly local capitals in order to build the first railway line. This line ran from Parque Station (where the Colón Opera House stands today) to Flores, eight miles to the west. This line was officially opened in August 1857 and was subsequently extended.

Several smaller rail companies (and lines) were created after the Western Rail, like the Northern Railway of Buenos Aires, the Buenos Aires and Ensenada Railway, the East Argentine Railway or the Buenos Aires to Campana Line. These companies were eventually absorbed by bigger British-owned outfits like the Central Argentine Railway Ltd. and the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway Co. Ltd. The latter quoted on the London Stock Exchange.

In 1948, President Perón decided to nationalise the seven railway companies operating in Argentina at the time. This was considered a turning point because it was thought to bring about economic independence. All it did was deepen the economic crises from the 1950s onwards by contributing heavily towards the national budget deficits and deteriorate the quality of the rail service and the rolling stock in a downward spiral.

TedX Rio de la Plata

El viernes pasado, 20 de Octubre, asistimos con los miembros del ‘Club de Ideas’ al evento de TedX Rio de la Plata. Estuvimos todo el día en tecnopólis viendo charlas de muchos argentinos de diferentes lugares del mundo.

Vimoscharlas de ciencia como la de la mujer que vivía en Estados Unidos y hacia órganos en chips, para estudiar el comportamiento de fármacos en el cuerpo humano. También estuvo el mago Radagast, que hablo de seguir el camino en ls vida que a uno lo inspira y entretiene, no entregarse a lo seguro y conocido. De las charlas que mas me gustaron, estuvieron la de Juan Pablo Sorín y Mateo Salvatto. Juampi habló sobre el “no” y como no tenemos que aceptarlo, como uno tiene que seguir intentando sin importar la cantidad de veces en que nos caigamos. La charla de Mateo Salvatto, fue una muy inspiradora, con 18 años de edad diseño y lanzó una aplicación para que la gente sorda se pueda comunicar de manera mas rápida y eficiente con las personas en su día a día.

Fue una muy linda y enriquecedora experiencia. No solo para las cosas que te deja cada charla, sino también porque te muestra el valor que cada una de esas personas tiene, que practican, memorizan y dedican tiempo para poder transmitirnos a nosotros un poco de lo que es su día a día.

Reseña Villa Ocampo

La casa Ocampo situada en San Isidro, Beccar es una casa del año 1923 de estilo francés. La casa se empezó a construir antes del nacimiento de Victoria Ocampo, en 1890. La casa era una de veraneo, sólo la usaba la familia en el verano. Cuando Victoria heredó la casa, la uso por  un tiempo sólo para el verano, hasta que decidió mudarse ahí permanentemente. La casa contiene muchas obras de arte, como una alfombra (no usada como tal) de Pablo Picasso, colgada en la entrada principal de la casa. En el hall principal están dos retratos de los bisabuelos de Victoria Ocampo. En la planta baja también están la sala de música, con al piano original de la casa, donde tocaron varios famosos pianistas. También la sala de estar con retratos de Victoria antes de casarse de joven, donde se juntaba con sus amigos y podemos encontrar fotos de ellos también. En la sala de estar están guardadas varios ejemplares de la revista “Sur”.

También recorrimos el primer piso de la casa, donde está al cuarto principal, donde dormía Victoria, su escritorio y maquina de escribir, el baño, con todas sus partes originales. Y por última recorrimos la biblioteca, donde están todos los libros que Victoria tenía en su casa, alguna en inglés o italiano. 

La visita la casa definitivamente valió la pena. En el colegio estuvimos leyendo textos de las hermanas Ocampo, fue bueno ver y conocer algunas de los lugares que solían habituar, en donde se inspiraban y escribían

Games at Twilight

For our Literature’s weekly virtual period we had to analyse a short story we had already read called “Games at Twilight” by Anita Desai. Here is the work that we did with Trini Torrendell.

Task 1: choose 10  quotes to analyze deep.

 

  • …a poor, ruined and conquered city.

 

This quote is from the moment in which Ravi describes the shed that he  is going to hide into, que describes it as a “poor” and “ruined” because inside the shed was full of rat holes, and spider webs, buckets with holes, and other valueless things that they owned. His mother only went inside the shed once a year, to fix the rat holes and remove the spider webs. Also he describes the shed as a “conquered city” because it had citizens of its, some of whom were the spiders and rats.

 

  • …everything was still curtained and shuttered in a way that stifled the children, made them feel that their lungs were stuffed with cotton wool and their noses with dust…

 

This quote belong to the first paragraph of the story, is the introduction. In the paragraph we are told that the children’s mother wouldn’t let them go outside to play in the hot day, they were stuck inside the house, all of the blinds were shut, windows were closed, and they felt as “their lungs were stuffed with cotton wool and their noses with dust”. This phrase is to describe how the children were feeling in the hot day, they were dying basically, it was disgusting to feel the heat up their nose and down their lungs.

 

  • …he had been forgotten, left out and he would not join them now.

 

This quote is from the final paragraph of the story. Ravi is feeling the ignominy of being forgotten. He cannot face it. He refuses to play with the other children to the funeral game, he wanted a victory, but he was so blinded by the feeling of it, that he actually forgot what he had to do to achieve it. Now he won’t play with the other children, he just laid on the grass, seeing his triumph fade away like a bad memory.

 

  • …his voice broke with rage and pity at the disgrace of it all and he felt himself flooded with tears and misery.

 

This quote is from the moment in which Ravi comes out of the shed to claim he’s longed for victory, the moment he had been playing over and over in his head. But when he makes it through to the veranda and finally calls out his triumph, he realizes that the children were no longer playing hide and seek, they had changed the game, forgotten about him. It was as if his dream was thrown into the floor and crushed. He couldn’t believe, let alone face it. This quote shows exactly that feeling, the disgrace and the pity, the misery and pain of not having won.

 

  • All this time no one had remembered Ravi.

 

This is when we are told that throughout the long hours that Rvi had been hiding in the shed, thinking about how to claim his victory, his family had moved on with their lives as any other ordinary afternoon, and no one had even noticed that he was missing. The children had ended and started many games, the parents had come back from work, washed their car, watered the plants. And when Ravi came out from his hiding to realize that no one had even noticed him gone, he couldn’t believe it. That moment is where this quote is taking us, to when Ravi realized he had been forgotten by his family.

  • He hugged his knees together and smiled to himself almost shyly at the thought of so much victory, such laurels.

In this quote he imagine the sensation of winning this war in hide and seek and because of it he started feeling the adrenaline of the victory. He also thought about overcome his opponents specially Raghu who was the oldest one and this is why he started feeling this excitement and was very anxious about it. All that he wanted at this part of the story was to try that taste of victory and feel superior to others by showing his abilities in this game which was very important for him. He wanted to prove that he could do it!

 

  • Ravi shook, then shivered with delight, with self-congratulation.

 

This quote described Ravi’s feeling at the middle of the story. It says that Ravi was a little bit scared but also happy because he hide in an interesting place where it was difficult to be seen. He was a little bit nervous because of the adrenaline of run and hide in some other place as he had the risk that he could be seen. He was feeling the victory as he could hide in an another place. This place was a little bit dark and with some insects but it was a very intelligent position for the game and he was very brave for running up the there and risking his life.

 

  • The scent of earth receiving water, slaking its thirst in great gulps and releasing that green scent of freshness, coolness.

 

This quote describes the the moment of the twilight and it admired how is nature formed by and Ali think it showed the part of every story when the end is coming soon and something would change everything as it is all the scenery relax and quiet. This was the moment when Ravi realized the time of the day it was as he would see the twilight and it’s show. Victory was so near that he could also feel it! The end was coming and he was prepared for it !

 

 

  • What fun if they were all found and caught – he alone left unconquered!

 

This phrase took part of Ravi’s objective in this game. He wanted to win! But not sharing the victory with another partner, he wished to be the only champion in this game and have all the triumph and happiness for himself. This quote showed how awesome it would be if all his opponents ,who ,by the way were his brothers and sisters, were caught and lose the game. If this happened he would have more chances to win and he will be invictus. This quote also shows how a kid always wants to win and how he would find his own happiness just by winning a game against his family without receiving any material prize, only honor and triumph.

 

  • He wanted victory and triumph- not a funeral.

 

In this quote we can see that the narrator is describing Ravi’s thoughts. He didn’t want to be a loser. He wanted to win this game. When you are a kid games like hide and seek are taking very seriously, in this case the protagonist saw this game as if it was life or death. If Ravi wins he will be safe and with triumph and honor but if he lose this game he will be death and having a “funeral”. This thoughts helped him to continue playing  

Task 2: Focus on the theory of Rite of Passage and write a paragraph commenting on this.

The theory of rite of Passage consists of five elements, the first one being the object of desire that the protagonist cannot get, in our case for Ravi the object he could not obtain was the victory, the possibility to defeat Raghu. The second element is “trespassing” when the children go outside and play in the veranda despite of the fact that their mother told them they could not do so. The third element is the “dare or challenge” which in our case is the entering of Ravi to the shed, despite of it being a dark and scary place. The fourth element in Rite of Passage is the “mischief” that should be owned up, but we do not see this element present in the story , because Ravi does respond to the fact of having lost, in a mature way, he does not own up to it. The final element is “acceptance” which does not occur in this story, Ravi cannot accept the fact that he has lost and that the game is over. So we see that he has not truly grown up, the Rite of Passage has not been completed and he has not grown at all, he is still a kid.

Film: “Marie Antoinette”

This is a double virtual period, so your deadline is: October, 13th.

Finish watching the movie “Marie Antoinette”, by Sofia Coppola. (The link was provided by Alina in your Facebook group).

Then, answer the following questions and post them in your blogs:

1. Marie Antoinette is sometimes referred to as “The Teenage Queen”. What attitudes in the movie can show that? 

We can see the teenage attitudes that the question is referring to as we see the movie and see how Marie Antoinette behaved likea child at the Frenchh court. All she did was party and drink, shop for clothes and shoes, she also broke the rules at court, the most important was that she cheated on her husband Louis.

2.  After her first child is born she shows many changes in her attitude and lifestyle. How? Provide examples. Why do you think that happens?

When her first child was born, a daughter, she decided she wanted to raise her on the countryside, so she had a house made for herself and moved there to teach her daughter about nature and the wildlife, as well as important values and things a princess is supposed to know. Although around her daughter she behaved like a mature woman, she stilled behaved like a child when she could.

3. Some historians have often suggested that Marie Antoinette’s behaviour helped encourage agitation in the people at the beginning of the Revolution. Can you find any instances in the movie that confirm or deny this claim?

Yes, her behaviour certainly helped to increase agitation in the people at the beginning of the Revolution, she was a very extravagant woman, she never stopped buying jewelry and expensive and unnecessary things, like shoes and dresses. She invested a lot of money on the palace’s gardens, and people envied this and didn’t like to see her spend all of their tax money on those things.

4. Towards the end of the movie, we see a more mature woman. How does she show she has somehow stopped being “The Teenage Queen”?

When the castle was attacked and her husband, the King was being taken, he asked her to leave with the children to keep herself and them safe, but she stayed behind with him, to support him and by doing this she showed real maturity. We can see at the end of the movie that the woman at the beginning and the woman at the end of the film are two different people.

Verse written on her Death Bed

Here is the work we have done in Literature class. I worked with Tota Lupi.

Overview

This is a beautiful and moving poem filled with the romance of a woman who feels she has truly found her soul mate.

Read the poem

Thou who dost all my worldly thoughts employ,
Thou pleasing source of all my earthly joy,
Thou tenderest husband and thou dearest friend,
To thee this first, this last adieu I send!
At length the conqueror death asserts his right,
And will for ever veil me from thy sight;
He wooes me to him with a cheerful grace,
And not one terror clouds his meagre face;
He promises a lasting rest from pain,
And shews that all life’s fleeting joys are vain;
Th’ eternal scenes of heaven he sets in view,
And tells me that no other joys are true.
But love, fond love, would yet resist his power,
Would fain awhile defer the parting hour;
He brings thy mourning image to my eyes,
And would obstruct my journey to the skies.
But say, thou dearest, thou unwearied friend!
Say, should’st thou grieve to see my sorrows end?
Thou know’st a painful pilgrimage I’ve past;
And should’st thou grieve that rest is come at last?
Rather rejoice to see me shake off life,
And die as I have liv’d, thy faithful wife.

Mary Monck (?-1715)

Work in pairs and include:

-data about the writer and context of production

-whether this poem is based on her  life or not

-themes and tones

-literary devices used by the poet to put across her message

-personal conclusion on the poem 

Monck, Mary, a woman of great beauty and considerable poetical abilities, daughter of Lord Molesworth, was born in the latter half of the 17th century. She acquired an intimate knowledge of Latin, Italian, and Spanish literature. Chiefly residing in the country, one of a numerous family, she cultivated poetry more as an amusement than with a view to publication. She married George Monck of Dublin. After her early death from consumption, at Bath, in 1715, a volume of her poems and translations was published. Several of her pieces are given in Cibber’s Lives of the Poets. 

The poem was written in 1715 in the end of enlightenment and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The poem is based on her life. She writes it in her death bed, as a farewell to her husband in 1715. However the poem was not published in that year, only after her death was any of her poetry published. The themes are companionship and friendship, rather than lust and passion since the poem is about true love. Also we see the impact of aging and mortality. The tone is generally soothing and gentle, with occasional emotional outbursts.

As for literary devices, the repetition of ‘all’ emphasises the fact that the husband is the only person in her life. We have an analogy presenting her struggle with illness as a war with death personified as a ‘conqueror’. She contrasts the ‘fleeting joys’ of life with the ‘eternal scenes of heaven’ in an attempt to convince herself and her husband that death should hold no fear and thus be welcomed.

Mary writes this poem to show all the love she felt for her husband, her best friend and companion. The poem is a farewell to the love of her life. She is writting this poem in sadness about leaving and being mortal, but at the same time the poem is a way to demonstrate to her husband how she loved him.

Virtual Period

-choose a song that deals with the same topic, find a video and analyse it.

-Post it in your blog

Video: Goodbye my lover by James Blunt

We chose this song because we realised that both the song and poem are about a farewell to a lower, friend, etc. James Blunt says goodbye through a singed poem to his former lover, where as Mary Monck leaves written words to her husband to say her goodbyes.

Letter from Napoleon’s Coronation

Task: imagine you are a person who attended Napoleon’s coronation as Emperor. Write a letter to a friend describing it and expressing your opinion about it. Inworked with Tota Lupi.

Dear Anette,
Today I attended Napoleon’s coronation.
It took place at Notre Dame, the cathedral is on a small island on the River Seine. People from all around the world come to Paris to admire the beauty of this French landmark. Thousands of frenchmen had gathered for the coronation. Inside the cathedral we could barely breathe because of all the people who came to witness this great event.

Priests, counselors and the Pope stood in the
alter at the sides of our great Emperor. When Napoleon lifted his crown the entire cathedral held it’s breath and as he laid it upon his head we all applauded and shouted his name with pride. Then came the coronation of his wife Josephine who wore the most beautiful gown I had ever seen and the brightest jewels France had ever seen.

With Napoleon as our Emperor I could not
be prouder of being French. I am sure his rule will make our country become one and all of us together will make France the greatest Nation Europe has ever witnessed. He has already proven to me he can accomplish great things with the new Constitution he wrote for all of France to by ruled by. He has released us from tax farmers and banned trade unions. By this, people will know that the money is not being stolen by the tax farmers, but actually going to the crown’s hands to be used for the countrymen’s benefit.

Long live Napoleon and his wife Josephine!

Sir Joseph.

Soldier, Rest! … And other poems

For this weeks Literature virtual period our teacher gave us the following assignment.

  1. Check out the following page: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/articles/70139/the-poetry-of-world-war-i
  2. Absolution by Siegfried Sassoon 

The anguish of the earth absolves our eyes 

Till beauty shines in all that we can see. 

War is our scourge; yet war has made us wise, 

And, fighting for our freedom, we are free.

 

Horror of wounds and anger at the foe, 

And loss of things desired; all these must pass. 

We are the happy legion, for we know 

Time’s but a golden wind that shakes the grass.

 

There was an hour when we were loth to part 

From life we longed to share no less than others. 

Now, having claimed this heritage of heart, 

What need we more, my comrades and my brothers? 

The title of the poem is Absolution, which means “formal release from guilt, obligation, or punishment”. I believe that the choice of word for the title makes reference to the fact that he was seeking a release from war, he didn’t want to fight anymore.
In this poem Sassoon, who fought in World War 1, is parting to the front line with his comrades. On the first stanza he gives name to all the things that have to happen before the war he is fighting ends. Which for him would be a long time as he believed that the war was being prolonged by the government. In this first stanza he also names the things he fights for, his freedom for example. On the second stanza he shows with simple vocabulary some of the few things that happen during war, the wounds, the anger, the loss of friends and time. Finally in the third stanza he asks his comrades, if there is anything else that they need, they will have everything waiting for them in their return, and when they are gone they will each other.
3. Compare it to “Soldier, Rest!” 
These two poems are very different. Mainly becuase Absolution is poem that takes place during the war, in which we can see soldiers parting to the front line, and where the author mentions what war involves, the feelings of the soldiers, and others. But “Soldier, Rest!” is a poem about death in war.  In which the author is telling the soldier that he does not have to worry about fighting, bullets, waking up in the middle of the night to hear the sound of weapons, because now he will “Sleep the sleep that knows not breaking”. The being the main difference in the poems, we also see that both authors come from different centuries, and have different vocabularies. Sassoon, uses more simple vocabulary, and Scott uses a more vulgar, but not in a bad way, kind of vocabulary. He uses words as if he were a soldier talking to another comrade, telling that he does not have to worry about war anylonger, he may sleep forever.
4. Illustrate it with pictures and explain which different parts of the poem they illustrate.

This picture shows the main events of war

Here we can see what parting for soldiers was like. In the back of the picture we read “new hope” that is what they seeked the most.